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Ideal research proposal sample for PhD students


Research Proposal On

Socio-Economic Situation of Rural–Urban Migrants:

A Study of Day Labor in Dhaka City


Submitted To:

Mohammad Mainuddin Mollah

Assistant Professor

Course No: 2008

Institute of Social Welfare and Research


Submitted By:

Mohammad Shahadat Hossen

Exam Roll: 2229, Class Roll: 13

Mahbub Tanjim

Exam Roll: 2221, Class Roll: 45

Jewel Hasan

Exam Roll: 2246 , Class Roll: 56

Course No: 2008

MSS Final in Social Welfare (Evening)

Session: 2015-2016

Course Name: Advanced Social Research


Institute of Social Welfare and Research

University of Dhaka


Socio-Economic Situation of Rural–Urban Migrants:

A Study of Day Labor in Dhaka City



The rapid growth of rural-urban migration (RUM) has been a common feature of the developing countries. There are various reasons for its occurrence and these reasons may vary from country to country. However, the consequences of this type of migration have similar effects for different countries. RUM is the most crucial component of internal migration of any country. It poses some problems in the rural as well as in the urban areas, even though there are benefits derived from it. In recent years, most of the cities in Bangladesh are experiencing rapid urbanization and RUM is the most important factor behind it. Bangladesh is one of the highest rates of growth of urban population. According to UN projection, the size of the urban population will be about 100 million by the year 2025 (UNESCO, 2009). Millions of rural people are migrating to divisional cities of Bangladesh. Migration to Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh will be the main focus of this study.

Background of Rural Urban Migration:

Effects of rural-urban migration. The increasing numbers of people moving towards the large urban areas cause three things to happen. First – urban growth which means that towns and cities are spatially expanding. Rural-urban migration has long been associated with economic development and growth in the economic literature.

Due to climate change-driven rising flood waters in Bangladesh workers are leaving their land and moving to the country’s cities in their droves.

Bangladesh seasonal flooding by the melt waters of the Himalayas is a natural phenomenon. Today, however, the amount of water reaching the low lying rivers of Bangladesh seems to have reached epic proportions.

The sea is advancing inland, flooding vast areas. Protective embankments—damaged and destroyed by recent cyclones Sidr and Aila in 2008 and 2009—offer little or no resistance.  In some places sea defenses have disappeared altogether and no new embankments are being built or repaired. Whole areas of agricultural land are submerged. This is complicated by the widening of rivers due to the large volumes of water descending from mountainous areas where glaciers are shrinking.

These are the low lying areas populated by the landless poor where no one else wants to farm. Some NGOs have advised building houses on higher ground and raising the level of planted areas, but this is labor intensive and does not produce food in the short term.  Expensive machinery needed to repair the banks to make these lifesaving modifications is in short supply. The rural poor are the hardest hit—forced to pack up as much of their belongings as they can carry to seek employment elsewhere.


Statement of the Proposal

In recent times there are more problems associated with rural urban migration; the impacts of these problems have apparently outweighed the associated benefits. Bangladesh governments are monitoring the effects of these problems, so as to design policies to try to reverse the trend of internal migration. This situation has made it very difficult or rather impossible for governments to plan and deliver the most needed social amenities for their subjects, especially those living in the rural areas to dissuade them from migrating into the city.

The trend of the movement of the rural people into the city has also militated against the agricultural development in the country. The stage of agricultural development in most African countries is still labor intensive, able bodied men who should till the land have abandon their role in the farms, and have engaged themselves in petty trading in the urban areas Although, these problems are of larger dimension, pervasive and are continuing unabated, not many governments have launched any regular research programmed to monitor the trend of the movement of their subjects on the sustainable basis. Thus the motivation of this research is to evaluate the problems encountered by migrants.


Rationality of the Study:

This research will be presented the impacts of rural-urban migration on income and poverty of rural households taking the case study of Dhaka City Corporation South Area.

Specifically, the research will represent the main economic migration models, their critics as well as the empirical works done on the models. The research also for  the rural-urban linkages and characteristics of labor market in Dhaka from the perspective of historical trends of migration, patterns of migration and labor productivity.  In general, rural-urban migration plays an important role both in meeting the labor demands of industries and facilitating the process of rural transformation. Remittances sent to families of migrants residing in rural origin can contribute for rural development not only by facilitating investment but also by enhancing the living standard of households and reducing chronic poverty. Rural-urban migration can be taken as a strategy particularly for poorest groups of rural households where they can supplement their farm income and then diversify risks. The effect of rural-urban migration from the perspective of migrant receivers (particularly commercial farms and labor intensive industries around urban regions) remained future area of research.





Operation Definition or Concept:


The term migration is seasonal movement of human or animals from one region to another.


The word rural is relating to, or characteristic of the countryside rather than the town.


The word urban relating to or characteristic of a city or town.

Rural to Urban Migration:

Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the city. This causes two things to happen:

  1. Urban growth – towns and cities are expanding, covering a greater area of land.
  2. Urbanization – an increasing proportion of people living in towns and cities.


Migration is the movement of population from one area to another.  Some migrations are forced, voluntary, permanent and temporary, International and regional. The type of migration that we are principally interested in this unit is Rural to urban migration, which is the movement of people from countryside to city areas.

Day Labor: Day labor is work done where the worker is hired and paid one day at a time, with no promise that more work will be available in the future.


Objectives of the Study:

General objectives:

The general objectives of this study is to highlight and evaluate the socio-economic situation of rural–urban migrants: a study of migrant day labor in Dhaka City


Specific objectives:

The specific objectives of the study would therefore include:

  1. To explore the socio-economic demographic characteristics of the day labor in Dhaka city.
  2. To study the push and pull factors those generate their migration to Dhaka city.
  3. To determine process of migration.
  4. To evaluate the impact of rural urban migration on the urban areas.
  5. To analyze the policy implication of rural urban migration.


Methodology of the Study: 

The study will be a quantitative research base on sample survey method by using interview. Both primary and secondary data will be use.

Areas of Study: The study area is Dhaka city as most of the people migrate to Dhaka to earn their livelihood. To study the day labor activities in the core city of Dhaka, three main locations (Mohammadpur, Newmarket, Gulisthan) areas will be cover. Many types of day labor like daily basis worker, contractual worker, hawker, foot worker and other mixed labor will be consider.



Population and Unit of Analysis:

All the people who come from rural areas to Dhaka city and earn their livelihood by street vending will be consider as population. Every street labor will be considering the unity of analysis.

Sample and Sampling of the Interviewees:

The sampling techniques will be purposive. Sample will be the selective and representative portion of day labor that migrates to Dhaka. Using purposive sampling techniques 75 street day labor will be selected from the study areas.

Primary data will be collected through interview schedule and secondary data will be collect from secondary sources like journal, study report, newspaper, magazine etc.

Data Processing, Analysis and Interpretation: The collected data will be editing, coding justifying and finally tabulate on the basis of different characteristics. The relationship of different variables shell takes to analysis by presenting data on bi-variant table and multi-variant table.

Final Report Writing: After collecting and analyzing the data final report will be making and present. This repot will reflect whole scenario of rural-urban migrant’s people socio-economical situation especially on street day labor.


Time Schedule:

  1. Making Proposal
  2. Interview Schedule ———————– 5 days
  3. Information Collection—————— 30 days
  4. Data analysis and data processing—- 20 days
  5. Report writing and presentation—— 10 days

Total ========================= 65 days





  1. Hossain M.Z.(2001), “ Rural-urban Migration in Bangladesh: A Micro Level Study”, Brazil
  2. Islam, N. (1999), Urbanization, Migration and development in Bangladesh: recent Trends and Emerging Issues, Paper I, Centre for policy Dialogue, Dhaka.
  3. Cateora P.R. and Graham J.L (2000), International Marketing, P.70. Academy of International Business University of Colorado, USA.
  4. Freedman (1947) Freeman Ronald (1947), “Health Differentials for Rural-Urban Migration American Sociological Review, Vol. 12 (5), p.536-41.
  5. Kitching, Gavin, 1980. Class and Economic Change in Kenya New Haven, Yale University Press.