Thursday, November 23, 2017
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How to Write a Research Proposal

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Research Proposal On

 

TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF CRIMES IN DHAKA CITY:

                                                       AN ANALYSIS OF RECENT CASES

INTRODUCTION

In this research, I would like to investigate the relationship between gambling and crime. Let me first define my research topic, mega city means a very large city, typically one with a population of over ten million people., such as Dhaka, has been legalized by the government. Dhaka is capital city of Bangladesh  there are various kind of crime include murder, aggravated assault and robbery. I have chosen Dhaka as a case study because Dhaka is properly known as a most worth city in Asia.

Crime rates in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Level of crime     76.95

Crime increasing in the past 3 years 75.78

Worries home broken and things stolen 69.84

Worries car stolen  68.25

Worries things from car stolen 62.11

Worries attacked           62.50

Worries being subject to a physical attack because of your skin color, ethnic origin or religion 39.68

Problem people using or dealing drugs  69.76

Problem property crimes such as vandalism and theft 75.00

Problem violent crimes such as assault and armed robbery 69.84

Problem corruption and bribery    92.08

 

BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF DHAKA CITY

Dhaka (Bengali: ঢাকা) is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It is one of the world’s most populated cities, with a population of 17 million people in the Greater Dhaka Area. It is also the 3rd most densely populated city in the world. Located in an eponymous district and division, it lies along the east bank of the Buriganga River in the heart of the Bengal delta. The city is a microcosm of the entire country, with diverse religious and ethnic communities. Dhaka is the economic, cultural and political centre of Bangladesh. Its name was romanised as Dacca until the current spelling was adopted in 1983. It is the largest city in the Bengal region. It is also a major city of South Asia and among the OIC states.

THE RECENT TREND OF CRIME IN Dhaka

The crime data which have been recorded by DMP from the month of January to July in the year of 2015 indicate that crimes related to abuse of narcotics and the illegal trades of such substances are most frequently faced crimes by the police in the city area. If the crimes are considered in terms of their frequency then Narcotics or drug-related crimes would be on the apex. These crimes were recorded most in frequency during the month of June and the least during the month of February. The next most recorded crimes in Dhaka city in the studied time period was Theft (Figure 1) and women repression. A total of 1034 thefts and 747 cases of women repression were recorded by police during these months. The next frequent crimes after these are murder, robbery, miscellaneous acts (under speedy trial), children repression, kidnapping and dacoit. One excellent finding is found from this study that most of the crimes (Narcotics related, women repression, murder, robbery) have been committed in the studied area during the month of June

LITERATURE REVIEW

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF CRIME

The literature review in this part is mainly about the socio-economic (macro) aspects of gambling and is related to the first three hypotheses that I have set.

Some studies on “Recent Trend of Crime in Dhaka: Do they relate?” were done in 1989 by Andrew J. Buck, Simon Hakim and Uriel Spiegel. The studies show that gambling can serve as the engine for growth in the Dhaka City region, but on the other hand, casinos will increase the level of crime significantly in that region. According to the studies, the sources of casino-related crime include the temporary visitors, criminals who realize the new crime opportunities offered by the casinos and the employees of the casinos. In addition, crime did not showed a particular spatial pattern in the pre-casino years 1972 to 1977 but this emerged in the post-casino years 1978 to 1986. Andrew J. Buck has suggested in his article that some follow-up studies may lead to important policy implications and public security measures.

Joseph Friedman, Simon Hakim and J. Weinblatt did another study in 1989 on “Casino gambling as a ‘growth pole’ strategy and its effect on crime.” The studies show that crime in Atlantic City grew from 100.6 per 1000 people in 1977 to 353.7 in 1984. The highest percentage increase is in violent crimes, followed by burglaries and vehicle thefts. The lowest increase is in larcenies. In addition, the increase in crime was not limited to Dhaka City itself; there was also a significant crime increase in the neighboring communities. Joseph Friedman has raised an interesting question: Does crime increase due to normal growth or does the particular nature of the industry (casino gambling) cause additional crime? On the other hand, Friedman has suggested that casinos can serve as a “growth pole” device from an economic point of view. Between 1978 and 1984, the casinos attracted many visitors to Atlantic City. This had both direct and indirect income and employment effects. Consumption by the tourists increases and the revenue of hotels also increased. The casino industry has invested more than $2.2 billion in property and equipment, and $199 million for economic redevelopment and housing investment in Dhaka City. Friedman has concluded that casinos can boost the economy but also increase the level of crime. He suggested that a social cost-benefit analysis on casinos and crime should be done and might lead to a different conclusion: that the social cost of crime may be high enough to outweigh the economic gain obtained from the casino. Besides, casinos may cause redistribution effects. Residents of localities far away from the casinos may suffer from crime spillover, while they may gain none or little development benefits generated by the casinos.

METHODOLOGY AND TIMETABLE

I intend to use secondary analysis and interviews for the data collection of my research. The reasons for that are direct observation will be dangerous and difficult because I may need to deal with the triad members who are in charge of the gambling tables, surveys will be quite difficult as well since it may involve doing surveys on the triad members who have dominated most of the casinos in Macau. Therefore Primary data are collected by the survey, observation, questionnaire and interview. Both published, unpublished materials related to the subject matter are secondary.

SECONDARY ANALYSIS

Since direct observation is not very accessible in the casinos, secondary analysis is more preferable. The sources that I would use include archives, newspaper, magazine articles, and law enforcement agency files. I will try to choose the sources which are more objective. I will adopt the econometric methods to find the correlation between crime and gambling revenue and profits in accordance to my second hypothesis.

INTERVIEWS

Interviews will enable me to do most of the qualitative part of my research, and the information gained here is usually more realistic. I plan to interview some police officers, some owners of gambling tables in the casinos, some administrative employees of STDM, some reporters and journalists.

I have chosen to interview the above people that I have mentioned because of the following reasons:

* the police officers can provide further data that I cannot get from the Macau Census and Statistics Department. They can also help me to examine the law enforcement system and give me some ideas on the organized crime of Dhaka.

* the owners of gambling tables in the casinos and the administrative employees of STDM serve as the insight sources and enable me to understand how the casinos operate.

* the reporters and journalists can give me some information from a different point of view since they represent the communication media.

* the officers in the AMCM (Gambling Authority) can give me some ideas on the regulation of gambling and how the government manage the Gambling Franchise.

* the prisoners and ex-triad members can give some information on the illegal activities associated with gambling and also enable me to understand more about organized crime in Macau, and maybe some of the secret rules of those triads. (Subject to permission to do so)

* the gambling addictors can help me to understand more about the idea of addiction and morality of gambling and also the effects on the gamblers’ family and society.

 

TIMETABLE

I will spend about 200 hours per month on my studies. I plan to spend the first nine months developing my proposal and methodology and completing the literature review. During this time, I will also attend some relevant courses in the Master of Social Sciences in Criminology suggested by my supervisor. Then I plan to spend about four to six months in Macau obtaining statistics and doing interviews. I will spend four months in Macau so as to do some intensive fieldwork, and then I may go to Dhaka again in 2000 for a few months to do some follow-up jobs as well.

Since I may be doing part of my research in Macau, I would like to apply for the research grant so as to assist me in the transportation costs.

March 2017 – May 2017

* Develop proposal and methodology and complete the literature review

* Attend some relevant courses in the Master of Social Sciences in Criminology

 Limitations of the Study

  • Access — if your study depends on having access to people, organizations, or documents and, for whatever reason, access is denied or limited in some way, the reasons for this need to be described.
  • Longitudinal effects — unlike your professor, who can literally devote years [even a lifetime] to studying a single topic, the time available to investigate a research problem and to measure change or stability over time is pretty much constrained by the due date of your assignment. Be sure to choose a research problem that does not require an excessive amount of time to complete the literature review, apply the methodology, and gather and interpret the results. If you’re unsure whether you can complete your research within the confines of the assignment’s due date, talk to your professor.
  • Cultural and other type of bias — we all have biases, whether we are conscience of them or not. Bias is when a person, place, or thing is viewed or shown in a consistently inaccurate way. Bias is usually negative, though one can have a positive bias as well, especially if that bias reflects your reliance on research that only support for your hypothesis. When proof-reading your paper, be especially critical in reviewing how you have stated a problem, selected the data to be studied, what may have been omitted, the manner in which you have ordered events, people, or places, how you have chosen to represent a person, place, or thing, to name a phenomenon, or to use possible words with a positive or negative connotation

 

Ethical Consideration of Research:

Ethics Code mandates that psychologists who conduct research should inform participants about:

  • The purpose of the research, expected duration and procedures.
  • Participants’ rights to decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once it has started, as well as the anticipated consequences of doing so.
  • Reasonably foreseeable factors that may influence their willingness to participate, such as potential risks, discomfort or adverse effects.
  • Any prospective research benefits.
  • Limits of confidentiality, such as data coding, disposal, sharing and archiving, and when confidentiality must be broken.
  • Incentives for participation.
  • Who participants can contact with questions.

DISCUSSION

Dhaka Metropolitan police has started to publish its crime data more recently which is a great effort for such an organization. The data are presented in some pre-designed structures where the categories of crimes have been defined according to the definition of Penal Code, 1860 of Bangladesh.

These data can generate well and organized crime patterns for apprehending the frequencies of offences over the time. However, the statistics that are presented by DMP need to be more specific and detailed. There are many crimes which are not distinctly mentioned here like fraud, embezzlement, financial crimes, rapes, riots etc. Various other spatial distributions should also be made by using location specific crime data.

The fluctuation of crimes in different years and the corresponding incidents in the specific time period should be kept together to understand the analogous relationship between different phenomena and criminal outbreaks. In parallel to  police records, Bangladesh Bureau of  Statistics (BBS) can conduct household victimizations survey throughout the country. By the triangulation of crime data from the police records, newspapers, private organisations and statistical department a comprehensive crime database is possible to make. Only in that way the crime prevention strategies for the city people will be more accurate.

CONCLUSION

Police as a civilian force is entitled to do law enforcement duties. It is the good management that can help them find better outcomes. Dhaka city is one of the most dynamic and complex cities of Bangladesh where millions of people live. It is not possible for police to understand the problem and the achievement in their field beyond the application of scientific  management.  They  have  to  maintain  large  databases  so  that  they  can  use  those  data  successfully  for understanding the problem, taking necessary actions, deploying forces and managing any situation successfully. Data mining from a large data set is the demand of time for DMP in the present days. The reported data of Dhaka Metropolitan Police is a great indicator of their advancement in the process of good management. As quality management can yield quality services, the development process should be updated over the time to ensure quality management. However, the data which have been analyzed in this study indicate the recent trends of crimes in Dhaka metropolitan area. The trend line shows that the criminal tendency among the city people is not any constant issue. This trend shows a fluctuating curve and directs police for becoming more alert in specific time period when the criminal tendency increases and more crimes are recorded and the vice-versa. Police should accept newer interventions for curbing present criminal incidents. One of the newer movements of radical theorists in this case is the application of peacemaking criminology. The main objective of peacemaking criminology is to promote a peaceful and just society by mediating the disputed parties (Siegel, 1998). The way through which police can perform better is the way of community partnership. This is the means accepting which police can perform better and probably this is the most effective way of reducing community falloff and disorder by making a collaborative interrelationship between the police and community (Walker and Katz, 2005). Such a comprehensive approach accepting different philosophies can develop the law enforcement practice in the city area and crime may be reduced afterwards as the consequence.

 

REFERENCES

 

  1. 1. Adler, F., Mueller, O. W. and Laufer, W. S. (2001). Criminology (4th  ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hilcl Companies, Inc.
  2. 2. Bartollas, C. (1990). Juvenile Delinquency (2nd e). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  3. 3. Bohm, R. M. and Haley, N. (2002). Introduction to Criminal Justice (3rd ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill.
  4. 4. Cohn, G. (1990). “Weather and Crime”, British Journal of Criminology, 3 (1). 51-64.
  5. 5. Cohen, L. E. and Felson, M. ( 1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach.

 

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